Although she willingly joined her family, Bradstreet had reservations about leaving an English estate filled with books and opportunities to forge a new life in a wilderness that lacked adequate food, shelter, and safety. Despite facing many illnesses, bearing eight children, and establishing herself within a hierarchical culture that considered women subservient to men, and men to God, Bradstreet became the first published author in the colonies. Her early poems engage historical and political themes and draw heavily from English and French literary sources. Most critics agree that her most powerful work comes in her later, more personal poems, where she speaks in a confident voice about her own experiences as a Puritan woman.
Edgar Allan Poe American short story writer, poet, critic, editor, novelist, and essayist. His fictional inventiveness is matched by his theoretical innovations, which not only provided a justification for his creation of the genres of science fiction and the detective story, but also attempted to create a tradition of uniquely American literary criticism that would free the American literary world from its colonial dependence on England.
Though the rigid standards demanded by Poe in his construction of a worthy national literature alienated many of his contemporaries, he is now recognized as an influential figure in the development of American as well as European literary traditions.
Biographical Information Born in Boston in to an English actress, Poe was left an orphan before the age of three. His early life was therefore spent as part of the southern gentry. He distinguished himself academically both at school and at the university, but his expectations to live the life of a southern gentleman were compromised by his deteriorating relationship with John Allan, which left him in a financially precarious position.
In Poe left Richmond and went to Boston in an attempt to create an independent life for himself. He enlisted in the army and simultaneously published his first book of poetry, Tamerlane, and Other Poems, which did not earn him any literary recognition.
Left once more to fend for himself, Poe went to New York and then to Baltimore, and tried to become a part of the successful literary circle centered in New England. However, though several of his short stories were published, he was unable to gain either literary recognition or financial security.
This marked the beginning of his career as a literary critic. For the next decade, though he continued to publish short stories and poetry, his chief occupation remained that of a journalist.
However, this professional consistency did not ensure financial stability since literary journalism was not a well-paying field.
As a result, he was forced to move from magazine to magazine in search of a better income and more critical freedom. Though he constantly dreamed of launching his own magazine, the closest he came to fulfilling this ambition was to become the proprietor of the Broadway Journal for a short time.
He could not, however, make the magazine as successful as he wished—his capabilities as an editor were undercut by his limitations as a business manager. At the same time, he also wrote purely theoretical pieces like "The Poetic Principle" and "The Philosophy of Composition.
Poe thus functioned as a working critic who constantly tested his literary principles against the touchstone of actual literary productions. For Poe, a unified literary work is one in which every detail, with respect to both style and content, directly contributes to the creation of the total effect of the piece.
For Poe, the primary aim of any literary work is to create a mood or an atmosphere that allows the reader to experience the "probable but impossible. This view should be distinguished, however, from the later ideas of Oscar Wilde and English aestheticism, since Poe did recognize the presence of moral truth at the core of the best literature.
In his more mature and balanced criticism Poe is able to reconcile the moral and the affective aspects of literature and praises works wherein the former is carefully woven into the fabric of the overall literary effect.
Critical Reception Contemporary reception of Poe as a literary critic is marked by controversy and ambiguity.
This period in literature is called the American Renaissance, though the phrase seems an apt description of all aspects of American culture at the time. in post-colonial theory, referring to the integration (or, mingling) of cultural signs and practices from the colonizing and the colonized cultures ("integration" may be too orderly a word to represent the variety of stratagems, desperate or cunning or good-willed, by. 1) Cultural difference in literary texts. e.g. gender (feminist criticism), class (Marxist criticism), and sexual orientation (lesbinlgay criticism). Eurocentric means Europe is the source of all.
While recognized as an astute editor whose perceptive reviews significantly increased the circulation of the Southern Literary Messenger, Poe also aroused strongly negative reactions through his harshly critical reviews that frequently included personal remarks and accusations of plagiarism.
During his lifetime he achieved a degree of notoriety during the "Longfellow war," when his attacks on the unofficial poet laureate of America generated a tremendous controversy. Certain scholars perceive this conflict in terms of a North-South division and view Poe as the representative of a southern literary tradition fighting against the domination of the New England literary circle.
Most scholars see him as the American spokesperson for Romanticism and argue that his emphasis on originality and aesthetics, along with his open admiration for Shelley and Keats, clearly places him in the tradition of English Romanticism.
While Poe may not fit neatly into any preconceived category of literary criticism, and though scholars continue to debate the value of his theoretical contributions, he remains an important critical figure who has left an undeniable mark on American literary criticism.Post-colonial theory looks at issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and culture and how these elements work in relation to colonial hegemony (Western colonizers controlling the colonized).
Early American Unit 1 Literary Analysis Essay Mr. Geis Direction: On your own paper, write a two paragraph Summary-Analysis Essay on your favorite selection in Unit 1. General Information: 1. Write the name of the selection you have chosen as the title of your paper.
2. Colonial culture was uniquely American simply because of the unique factors associated with the development of the colonies.
Never before had the conditions that tempered the colonists been seen. The unique blend of diverse environmental factors and peoples caused the development of a variety of cultures that were mostly English, part .
in post-colonial theory, referring to the integration (or, mingling) of cultural signs and practices from the colonizing and the colonized cultures ("integration" may be too orderly a word to represent the variety of stratagems, desperate or cunning or good-willed, by.
American short story writer, poet, critic, editor, novelist, and essayist. The following entry presents criticism of Poe's essays.
See also, Edgar Allan Poe . Introduction. In , eighteen-year-old Anne Bradstreet joined her family, her new husband, and a large group of Puritan faithful on a harrowing three-month journey from Southampton, England, to New England.
Bradstreet’s father and husband were prominent members of a Puritan community seeking freedom from persecution by the Church of England.