Following the work of the Airports Commission, the Government announced in the autumn of that its preferred scheme for an additional runway in the south-east was a new north-west runway at Heathrow. This decision was placed in the context of a National Policy Statement currently still in revised draft which, at some stage before the project can proceed, has to be voted on by Parliament.
History[ edit ] On this map by Abraham OrteliusCataio is located inland of China referring to today's Guangdong and Chequan Zhejiangand borders on " Thebet " in the southwest and " Camul " in the west.
There is also Mangi between "Cataio" and Xanton Shandong. The objects in "Cataio" are based on Marco Polo's description and include the capital CambaluXanduand a marble bridge The term Cathay came from the name for the Khitans. A form of the name Cathai is attested Heathrow and gatwick essay a Uyghur Manichaean document circa The name's currency in the Muslim world survived the replacement of the Khitan Liao dynasty with the Jurchen Jin dynasty in the early 12th century.
However, its use by Turkic speakers within China, such as the Uyghursis considered pejorative by the Chinese authority who had tried to ban it. The name occurs in the writings of Giovanni da Pian del Carpine c. Europeans in Medieval ChinaSino-Roman relationsSericaand Daqin The division of China into northern and southern parts ruled by, in succession, the Liao, Jin and Mongol Yuan empires in the north, and the Song dynasty in the south, ended in the late 13th century with the conquest of southern China by the Mongol Yuan Empire.
While Central Asia had long known China under names similar to Cathay, that country was known to the peoples of South-East Asia and India under names similar to China cf.
Cina in modern Malay. Meanwhile, in China itself, people usually referred to their nation state based on the name of the ruling dynasty, e.
Therefore, it would not be uncommon for 16th-century maps to apply the label "China" just to the coastal region already well known to the Europeans e. During his first 15 years in China — Matteo Ricci formed a strong suspicion that Marco Polo's "Cathay" is simply the "Tatar" i.
Ricci supported his arguments by numerous correspondences between Marco Polo's accounts and his own observations: The River " Yangtze " divides the empire into two halves, with 9 provinces "kingdoms" south of the river and 6 to the north; Marco Polo's "Cathay" was just south of " Tartary ", and Ricci learned that there was no other country between the Ming Empire and "Tartary" i.
People in China had not heard of any place called "Cathay". Most importantly, when the Jesuits first arrived to Beijingthey also met a number of "Mohammedans" or "Arabian Turks" — visitors or immigrants from the Muslim countries to the west of China, who told Ricci that now they were living in the Great Cathay.
This all made them quite convinced that Cathay is indeed China. This was stated e. Jodocus HondiusIn retrospect, the Central Asian Muslim informants' idea of the Ming China being a heavily Christian country may be explained by numerous similarities between Christian and Buddhist ecclesiastical rituals — from having sumptuous statuary and ecclesiastical robes to Gregorian chant — which would make the two religions appear externally similar to a Muslim merchant.
Inin Cialishe, too, became convinced that his destination is China, as he met the members of a caravan returning from Beijing to Kashgar, who told them about staying in the same Beijing inn with Portuguese Jesuits. In fact, those were the same very "Saracens" who had, a few months earlier, confirmed it to Ricci that they were in "Cathay".
Naturally, Cambalu and Xandu are shown in Cathay, while Shuntien Beijing is in China Ricci's and de Gois' conclusion was not, however, completely convincing for everybody in Europe yet. Samuel Purchaswho in published an English translation of Pantoja's letter and Ricci's account, thought that perhaps, Cathay still can be found somewhere north of China.
The borders drawn on some of these maps would first make Cathay the northeastern section of China e. Duyvendak hypothesized that it was the ignorance of the fact that "China" is the mighty "Cathay" of Marco Polo that allowed the Dutch governor of East Indies Jan Pieterszoon Coen to embark on an "unfortunate" for the Dutch policy of treating the Ming Empire as "merely another 'oriental' kingdom".
Golius knew no Chinese, but he was familiar with Zij-i Ilkhania work by the Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusicompleted inin which he described the Chinese "Cathayan" calendar.
The names of the 24 solar terms matched as well. The story, soon published by Martini in the "Additamentum" to his Atlas of China, seemed to have finally convinced most European scholars that China and Cathay were the same.Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Heathrow Airport StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes (Flottau, ).
The company is operation is based at the London’s Heathrow and Gatwick airports and Manchester and operates its long haul services from Health to New Yolk, Los Angeles. Mildenhall is a small market town and civil parish in Suffolk, pfmlures.com is part of the non-metropolitan district of Forest Heath and has a population of 9, people, increasing to 10, at the Census.
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Official Gatwick Airport website - live flights & times, arrivals & departures, news & advice at Gatwick Airport. Does the economic case favour a new runway at Heathrow, Gatwick or elsewhere?
Heathrow (LHR) is the busiest airport in Britain and third busiest globally with an average of 73 million passengers travelling through the site each year from planes which arrive/leave every 45 seconds going to destinations across the world.
Essay on London. By Lauren Bradshaw. May 26, Sample Essays. London has 5 airports: Heathrow, Gatwick, City, Luton und Stansted.
Trains and undergrounds pass about railway stations: eight special railway stations built in a ring around the city centre serve for the long distance traffic. You can order a custom essay, term.