All About Theories for Communication.
Girard Desargues defined the vertical to be perpendicular to the horizon in his Perspective of The vertical direction is designated. The horizontal is normal to the vertical. Through any point P, there is exactly one vertical and exactly one horizontal. Alternatively, one can start by designating the horizontal direction.
In the context of a two-dimensional orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system on a Euclidean plane, to say that a line is horizontal or vertical, an initial designation has to be made. One can start off by designating the vertical direction, usually labelled the Y direction.
Or, one can do it the other way around, i. There is no special reason to choose the horizontal over the vertical as the initial designation: The following hold in the two-dimensional case: Through any point P in the plane, there is one and only one vertical line within the plane and one and only one horizontal line within the plane.
This symmetry breaks down as one moves to the three-dimensional case.
A vertical line is any line parallel to the vertical direction. A horizontal line is any line normal to a vertical line.
Horizontal lines do not cross each other. Vertical lines do not cross each other. Not all of these elementary geometric facts are true in the 3-D context. In three dimensions[ edit ] In the three-dimensional case, the situation is more complicated as now one has horizontal and vertical planes in addition to horizontal and vertical lines.
Consider a point P and designate a direction through P as vertical. A plane which contains P and is normal to the designated direction is the horizontal plane at P.
Any plane going through P, normal to the horizontal plane is a vertical plane at P. Through any point P, there is one and only one horizontal plane but a multiplicity of vertical planes. This is a new feature that emerges in three dimensions. The symmetry that exists in the two-dimensional case no longer holds.
The plumb line and spirit level[ edit ] Spirit level bubble on a marble shelf tests for horizontality In physics, in engineering, and in construction, the direction designated as vertical is usually that along which a plumb-bob hangs.Dec 10, · Vertical, Horizontal, and Diagonal Communications Communication can be characterized as vertical, horizontal, or diagonal.
Initially greater emphasis was directed at vertical organizational communication as compared to lateral communication but that is no longer the case.
FOCUS ON COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, AND SCHOOLS VOLUME 4, NUMBER1, 1 Formal Communication Channels: Upward, Downward, Horizontal, and External. Communication that moves through a chain of command typically is vertical in nature.
Rules and mandates come down from the top leadership to management and trickle down to the front-line. Dec 10, · Vertical, Horizontal, and Diagonal Communications Communication can be characterized as vertical, horizontal, or diagonal. Initially greater emphasis was directed at vertical organizational communication as compared to lateral communication but that is no longer the case.
Technical Report Writing – Summer Horizontal, Vertical and Internal Communication in an Organization Research Paper submitted to: Professor Pacelli Eugenio.
Formal Communication Channels: Upward, Downward, Horizontal, and External Fred C. Lunenburg Sam Houston State University _____ ABSTRACT An organization’s structure influences the communication patterns within the organization.