In the government passed the Allotment Act which would turn tribal members into land owners. While each family was given acres, there were some stipulations. The other issue was with the Native Americans not knowing how to farm or utilize the land. Since the land could not be legally sold, the Bureau of Indian Affairs ended up leasing the land to White landowners Schaefer
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Native American history The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian. Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional artsfolk literaturefolklorearchaeologyand other sources.
Powhatan village of SecotonPowhatan village of Secoton, colour engraving by Theodor de Bry,after a watercolour drawing by John White, c.
As one would expect, indigenous American farmers living in stratified societies, such as the Natchezengaged with Europeans differently than did those who relied on hunting and gathering, such as the Apache.
Likewise, Spanish conquistadors were engaged in a fundamentally different kind of colonial enterprise than were their counterparts from France or England. The sections below consider broad trends in Native American history from the late 15th century to the late 20th century.
More-recent events are considered in the final part of this article, Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
North America and Europe circa The population of Native America Scholarly estimates of the pre-Columbian population of Northern America have differed by millions of individuals: In anthropologist James Mooney undertook the first thorough investigation of the problem.
He estimated the precontact population density of each culture area based on historical accounts and carrying capacity, an estimate of the number of people who could be supported by a given form of subsistence.
Mooney concluded that approximately 1, individuals lived in Northern America at the time of Columbian landfall. In ethnohistorian Henry Dobyns estimated that there were between 9, and 12, people north of the Rio Grande before contact; in he revised that number upward to 18, people.
Dobyns was among the first scholars to seriously consider the effects of epidemic diseases on indigenous demographic change. He noted that, during the reliably recorded epidemics of the 19th century, introduced diseases such as smallpox had combined with various secondary effects i.
He then used this and other information to calculate from early census data backward to probable founding populations. Some of his critics fault Dobyns for the disjunctions between physical evidence and his results, as when the number of houses archaeologists find at a site suggests a smaller population than do his models of demographic recovery.
Others, including the historian David Henige, criticize some of the assumptions Dobyns made in his analyses. For instance, many early fur traders noted the approximate number of warriors fielded by a tribe but neglected to mention the size of the general population.
This group notes that severe epidemics of European diseases may have begun in North America in the late 10th or early 11th century, when the Norse briefly settled a region they called Vinland.
Yet another group of demographers protest that an emphasis on population loss obscures the resilience shown by indigenous peoples in the face of conquest.
Most common, however, is a middle position that acknowledges that demographic models of 15th-century Native America must be treated with caution, while also accepting that the direct and indirect effects of the European conquest included extraordinary levels of indigenous mortality not only from introduced diseases but also from battles, slave raids, and—for those displaced by these events—starvation and exposure.
This perspective acknowledges both the resiliency of Native American peoples and cultures and the suffering they bore. Native American ethnic and political diversity Determining the number of ethnic and political groups in pre-Columbian Northern America is also problematic, not least because definitions of what constitutes an ethnic group or a polity vary with the questions one seeks to answer.
Ethnicity is most frequently equated with some aspect of languagewhile social or political organization can occur on a number of scales simultaneously. Thus, a given set of people might be defined as an ethnic group through their use of a common dialect or language even as they are recognized as members of nested polities such as a clana village, and a confederation.
Other factors, including geographic boundaries, a subsistence base that emphasized either foraging or farming, the presence or absence of a social or religious hierarchyand the inclinations of colonial bureaucratsamong others, also affected ethnic and political classification; see Sidebar: The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band.
The cross-cutting relationships between ethnicity and political organization are complex today and were equally so in the past.
And both the hypothetical Germanic speaker and the hypothetical Iroquoian speaker live or lived in nested polities or quasi-polities: Recognizing that it is difficult to determine precisely how many ethnic or political groups or polities were present in 15th-century Northern America, most researchers favour relative rather than specific quantification of these entities.
The outstanding characteristic of North American Indian languages is their diversity—at contact Northern America was home to more than 50 language families comprising between and languages. At the same moment in history, western Europe had only 2 language families Indo-European and Uralic and between 40 and 70 languages.
In other words, if one follows scholarly conventions and defines ethnicity through language, Native America was vastly more diverse than Europe.Reparations for Slavery?
Today, even after the success of the civil rights movement, the black American population on average has higher infant-mortality rates, lower life expectancy, higher rates of unemployment, lower income, and higher rates of imprisonment than the white population.
However by the 's they started to grow again. In today's society census shows that approximately million Native American are in United States. The two largest groups of Native Americans people are Cherokee and Navajo.
Native American has numerous collection of nations, societies, economics, political, and great customs/5(1). Free College Essay Treaties Between Native Americans and the U.S. Government. When the first Hispanic colonists came to North America in , the population of the Native Americans dropped critically/5(1).
Should Native Americans Casino's be Taxed?ByMalika StanleyI. IntroA. General HistoryOne of the upcoming California ballot initiatives poses the question of whether Indian casinos should be required to pay taxes.
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Sacred Giving, Sacred Receiving, by Joseph Bruchac June 20, By Joseph Bruchac. The American Indian Giveaway anthologies, and music that reflect his Abenaki Indian heritage and Native American traditions.
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