A woman living in Florence in the 15th century did not think of herself as a woman of the Renaissance. Historians divide history into large and small units in order to make characteristics and changes clear to themselves and to students. Below are some important basics to get you started. As you read the timeline below, please keep in mind that equally momentous developments have occurred in Africa, Asia, the Americas and in the Pacific.
As with all other cultures it has evolved and gradually changed over time. All generalities about it have their exceptions at some time and place. The organisation and tactics of the Greek Hoplites differed in many ways from the Roman Western culture.
The polis of the Greeks is not the same as the American superpower of the 21st century. The gladiatorial games of the Roman Empire are not identical to present-day football.
The art of Pompeii is not the art of Hollywood. Nevertheless, it is possible Western culture follow the evolution and history of the West, and appreciate its similarities and differences, its borrowings from, and contributions to, other cultures of humanity.
Later, ideas of the west were formed by Western culture concepts of Christendom and the Holy Roman Empire. What we think of as Western thought today is generally defined as Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian culture, and includes the ideals of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.
Nevertheless the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves in the formulation of Aristotle as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Easterners.
Ancient Greek sciencephilosophydemocracyarchitectureliteratureand art provided a foundation embraced and built upon by the Roman Empire as it swept up Europe, including the Hellenic World in its conquests in the 1st century BC.
In the meantime however, Greece, under Alexander, had become a capital of the East, and part of an empire. The idea that the later Orthodox or Eastern Christian cultural descendants of the Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire, are a happy mean between Eastern slavishness and Western barbarism is promoted to this day, for example in Russia, creating a zone which is highly context-depending.
For about five hundred years, the Roman Empire maintained the Greek East and consolidated a Latin West, but an East-West division remained, reflected in many cultural norms of the two areas, including language. Although Rome, like Greece, was no longer democratic, the idea of democracy remained a part of the education of citizens, as if the emperors were a temporary emergency measure.
Eventually the empire came to be increasingly officially split into a Western and Eastern part, reviving old ideas of a contrast between an advanced East, and a rugged West.
In the Roman world one could speak of three main directions; North Celtic tribes and Parthiansthe East lux ex orienteand finally South which implied danger, historically via the Punic wars Quid novi ex Africa?
The West was peaceful — it contained only the Mediterranean. Also, Roman culture mixed with the pre-existing CelticGermanic and Slavic cultures, which slowly became integrated into Western culture starting, mainly, with their acceptance of Christianity.
After the fall of Rome much of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire, centered around Italyand Gaul France.
However, this would become the centre of a new West. Europe fell into political anarchy, with many warring kingdoms and principalities. Under the Frankish kings, it eventually reunified and evolved into feudalism. Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by the Pope in His reign is associated with the Carolingian Renaissancea revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church.
Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. The re-establishment of a Western "Roman" imperium challenged the status of the Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople and strained relations between them.
Much of the basis of the post-Roman cultural world had been set before the fall of the Empire, mainly through the integrating and reshaping of Roman ideas through Christian thought. The Greek and Roman paganism had been completely replaced by Christianity around the 4th and 5th centuries, since it became the official State religion following the baptism of emperor Constantine I.
Roman Catholic Christianity and the Nicene Creed served as a unifying force in Christian parts of Europe, and in some respects replaced or competed with the secular authorities.
Art and literature, law, education, and politics were preserved in the teachings of the Church, in an environment that, otherwise, would have probably seen their loss. The Church founded many cathedralsuniversitiesmonasteries and seminariessome of which continue to exist today. In the Medieval period, the route to power for many men was in the Church.
In a broader sense, the Middle Ageswith its fertile encounter between Greek reasoning and Levantine monotheism was not confined to the West but also stretched into the old East, in what was to become the Islamic world.
The philosophy and science of Classical Greece was largely forgotten in Western and Northern Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, other than in isolated monastic enclaves notably in Ireland, which had become Christian but which was never conquered by Rome.
Classical Greek learning was also subsumed, preserved and elaborated in the rising Islamic world, which gradually supplanted Roman-Byzantine control over the Mediterranean, Middle East, North Africa, Iberia and even Greece itself — becoming a dominant cultural-political force in those regions.
Thus, from the margins of the Roman world much of the learning of classical antiquity was slowly reintroduced to Western Europe in the centuries following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
The discovery of the New World by Christoper Columbus. Elizabeth I whose reign gave rise to British colonial power.
The rediscovery of the Justinian Code in Western Europe early in the 10th century rekindled a passion for the discipline of law, which crossed many of the re-forming boundaries between East and West.
Eventually, it was only in the Catholic or Frankish west, that Roman law became the foundation on which all legal concepts and systems were based.
Its influence can be traced to this day in all Western legal systems although in different manners and to different extents in the common England and the civil continental European legal traditions.
The study of canon lawthe legal system of the Catholic Church, fused with that of Roman law to form the basis of the refounding of Western legal scholarship.Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean. It is linked to the Roman Empire and with Medieval Western Christendom which emerged from the Middle Ages to experience such transformative episodes as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment.
Western culture synonyms, Western culture pronunciation, Western culture translation, English dictionary definition of Western culture.
Noun 1. Western culture - the modern culture of western Europe and North America; "when Ghandi was asked what he thought of Western civilization . Following Western civilization, modern youth of Kyrgyzstan may get into Western sewer - Deputy Prime Minister The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from to Western culture synonyms, Western culture pronunciation, Western culture translation, English dictionary definition of Western culture.
Noun 1. Western culture - the modern culture of western Europe and North America; "when Ghandi was asked what he thought of Western civilization . Basis for Comparison Indian Culture Western Culture; Meaning: The culture which is followed in India, is Indian culture.
The culture which is followed in most western countries like USA, Spain, Canada, Europe etc. is known as Western culture. Read and learn for free about the following article: A brief history of Western culture.
Western culture is a term that refers to the heritage of ethical values, traditions, customs, belief systems, technologies, and artefacts that define the lifestyles and beliefs of . Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific artifacts and pfmlures.com term has come to apply to countries whose history is strongly marked by European immigration or settlement of white. Western culture is a term that refers to the heritage of ethical values, traditions, customs, belief systems, technologies, and artefacts that define the lifestyles and beliefs of .